Selected Publications






  • Bergman, SC, Huntington, KW, Crider, JG. Tracing paleofluid sources using clumped isotope thermometry of diagenetic cements along the Moab Fault, Utah. American Journal of Science, v. 313, 490-515, doi: 10.2475/05.2013.03. (2013).
  • Stüeken EE. A test of the nitrogen-limitation hypothesis for retarded eukaryote radiation: nitrogen isotopes across a Mesoproterozoic basinal profile. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 120: 121-139. (2013).
  • Pasek MA, Harnmeijer JP, Buick R, Gull M, Atlas Z. Evidence for reactive reduced phosphorus species in the early Archean ocean. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA., 110, 10089-10094. (2013).
  • Geng L, Schauer AJ, Kunasek SA, Sofen ED, Erbland J, Savarino J, Allman DJ, Sletten RS, Alexander B. Analysis of oxygen-17 excess of nitrate and sulfate at sub-micromole levels using the pyrolysis method, Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 27: 2411-2419. doi:10.1002/rcm.6703 (2013).
  • Zatko MC, Grenfell TC, Alexander B, Doherty SJ, Thomas JL, Yang X. The influence of snow grain size and impurities on the vertical profiles of actinic flux and associated NOx emissions on the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13, 3547-3567, doi:10.5194/acp-13-3547-2013 (2013).
  • Savarino J, Morin S, Erbland J, Grannec F, Patey M, Vicars W, Alexander B, Achterberg EP. Isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate in a tropical marine boundary layer, PNAS (published ahead of print), doi:10.1073/pnas.1216639110 (2013).
  • Schoenemann, SW, Schauer, AJ, Steig, EJ. Measurement of SLAP2 and GISP δ17O and proposed VSMOW-SLAP normalization for δ17O and 17Oexcess. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 582–590 (2013). doi:10.1002/rcm.6486


  • Peters NA, Huntington KW, Hoke GD. Hot or not? Impact of seasonally variable soil carbonate formation on paleotemperature and O-isotope records from clumped isotope thermometry, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2012.10.024 (2012).
  • Som SM, Catling DC, Harnmeijer JP, Polivka PM, Buick R. Air density 2.7 Gyr ago limited to less than twice modern levels by fossil raindrops. Nature, 484, 359-362. (2012).
  • Buick R, Geobiology of the Archean eon, in Knoll AH, Canfield DE, Konhauser KO. (eds) Fundamentals of Geobiology, Blackwell, Oxford, 351-370. (2012).
  • Stüeken EE, Catling DC, Buick R. Contributions to late Archaean sulphur cycling by life on land. Nature Geoscience, 5, 722-725 (2012).
  • Alexander B, Allman DJ, Amos HM, Fairlie TD, Dachs J, Hegg DA, Sletten RS. Isotopic constraints on sulfate aerosol formation pathways in the marine boundary layer of the subtropical northeast Atlantic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res.117, D06304, doi:10.1029/2011JD016773 (2012).
  • Ding Q, Steig EJ, Battisti DS, Wallace JM. Influence of the tropics on the Southern Annular Mode. Journal of Climate, in press.
  • Neff PD, Steig EJ, Clark DH, McConnell JR, Pettit EC, Menounos B. Ice-core net snow accumulation and seasonal snow chemistry at a temperate-glacier site: Mount Waddington, southwest British Columbia, Canada. Journal of Glaciology Vol. 58, No. 212. doi: 10.3189/2012JoG12J078. (2012).
  • Schauer AJ, Kunasek SA, Sofen ED, Erbland J, Savarino J, Johnson BW, Amos HM, Shaheen R, Abaunza M, Jackson TL, Thiemens MH, Alexander B. Oxygen isotope exchange with quartz during pyrolysis of silver sulfate and silver nitrate. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry DOI: 10.1002/rcm.6332 (2012).
  • Schoepfer SD, Henderson CM, Garrison GH, Ward PD. Cessation of a productive coastal upwelling system in the Panthalassic Ocean at the Permian-Triassic Boundary. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology313-314: 181-188, ISSN 0031-0182, 10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.10.019 (2012).
  • Schoepfer SD, Henderson CM, Garrison GH, Foriel J, Ward PD, Selby D, Hower JC, Algeo TJ, Shen Y. Termination of a continent-margin upwelling system at the Permian-Triassic boundary (Opal Creek, Alberta, Canada). Global and Planetary Change, Available online 15 July 2012. (2012).
  • Som SM, Catling DC, Harnmeijer JP, Polivka PM, Buick R. Air density 2.7 billion years ago limited to less than twice modern levels by fossil raindrop imprints. Naturedoi:10.1038/nature10890 (2012).
  • Steig EJ, Ding Q, Battisti DS, Jenkins A. Tropical forcing of circumpolar deep water inflow and outlet glacier thinning in the Amundsen Sea Embayment, West Antarctica. Annals of Glaciology53: 19-28 (2012).
  • Tobin TS, Ward PD, Steig EJ, Olivero EB, Hilburn IA, Mitchell RN, Diamond MR, Raub TD, Kirschvink JL. Extinction patterns, δ18O trends, and magnetostratigraphy from a southern high-latitude Cretaceous-Paleogene section: Links with Deccan volcanism. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, (2012)
  • Winstrup M, Svensson AM, Rasmussen SO, Winther O, Steig EJ, Axelrod AE. An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores. Clim. Past Discuss., 8, 2519-2555. doi:10.5194/cpd-8-2519-2012. (2012).


  • Carré M, Azzoug M, Bentaleb I, Chase BM, Fontugne M, Jackson D, Ledru M-P, Maldonado A, Sachs JP, Schauer AJ. Mid-Holocene mean climate in the south-eastern Pacific and its influence on South America. Quaternary International doi: 10.1016/ j.quaint.2011.02.004
  • Costa AW, Michalski G, Schauer AJ, Alexander B, Steig EJ, Shepson PB. Analysis of atmospheric inputs of nitrate to a temperate forest ecosystem from Δ17O isotope ratio measurements. Geophysical Research Letters38: L15805, doi:10.1029/2011GL047539 (2011).
  • Ding Q, Steig EJ, Battisti DS, Küttel M. Winter warming in West Antarctica caused by central tropical Pacific warming. Nature Geoscience, 4: 398 403 (2011).
  • Fegyveresi JM, Alley RB, Spencer MK, Fitzpatrick JJ, Steig EJ, White JWC, McConnell JR, Taylor KC. Late-Holocene climate evolution at the WAIS Divide site, West Antarctica: bubble number-density estimates. Journal of Glaciology, 57(204): 629-638 (2011).
  • Hezel PJ, Alexander B, Bitz M, Steig EJ, Holmes CD, Yang X, Sciare J. Modeled methanesulfonic acid (MSA) deposition in Antarctica and its relationship to sea ice. Journal of Geophysical ResearchD23214, doi:10.1029/2011JD016383 (2011).
  • Huntington KW, Budd DA, Wernicke BP, Eiler JM. Use of clumped-isotope thermometry to constrain the crystallization temperature of diagenetic calcite. Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 81, 656-669, doi: 10.2110/jsr.2011.51. (2011)
  • Jaeglé L, Quinn PK, Bates T, Alexander B, Lin J-T. Global distribution of sea salt aerosols: new constraints from in situ and remote sensing observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 3137-3157, doi:10.5194/acp-11-3137-2011 (2011).
  • Sofen ED, Alexander B, Kunasek SA. The impact of anthropogenic emissions on atmospheric sulfate production pathways, oxidants, and ice core Δ17O(SO42-), Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 3565-3578, doi:10.5194/acp-11-3565-2100 (2011).
  • Tobin TS, Schauer AJ, Lewarch E. Alteration of micromilled carbonate δ18O during Kiel Device analysis. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry. DOI: 10.1002/rcm.5093. (2011)


  • Buick R. Early life: ancient acritarchs. Nature463, 885-886. (2010) doi:10.1038/463885a
  • Fairlie TD, Jacob DJ, Dibb JE, Alexander B, Avery MA, van Donkelaar A, Zhang L. Impact of mineral dust on nitrate, sulfate and ozone in transpacific Asian pollution plumes. Atmos. Chem. Phys.10, 3999-4012 (2010).
  • Gray B, Wang Y, Gu D, Bandy A, Mauldin L, Clarke A, Alexander B, Davis DD. Sources, transport and sinks of SO2 over the equatorial Pacific during the Pacific Atmospheric Sulfur Experiment. J. Atmos. Chem. doi: 10.1007/s10874-010-9177-7, PASE special issue (2010).
  • Hagedorn B, Sletten RS, Hallet B, McTigue DF, Steig EJ. Ground ice recharge via brine transport in frozen soils in Victoria Valley, Antarctica: insights from modeling δ18O and δD profiles. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta74, 435- 448 (2010).
  • Huntington KW, Wernicke BP, Eiler JM. Influence of climate change and uplift on Colorado Plateau paleotemperatures from carbonate 'clumped isotope' thermometry. Tectonics, v 29, TC3005, doi:10.1029/2009TC002449. (2010).
  • Jaeglé L, Quinn PK, Bates T, Alexander B, Lin J-T. Global distribution of sea salt aerosols: new constraints from in situ and remote sensing observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.10, 25687-25742, doi:10.5194/acpd-10-25687-2010 (2010).
  • Kunasek SA, Alexander B, Steig EJ, Sofen ED, Jackson TL, Thiemens MH, McConnel JR, Gleason DJ, Amos HM. Sulfate sources and oxidation chemistry over the past ~230 years from sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate in a West Antarctic ice core. J. Geophys. Res.115, D18313, doi:10.1029/2010JD013846 (2010). Highlighted in Eos Vol. 91, No. 49, 7 December 2010 "Research Spotlight" WAIS Divide ice core
  • Sofen ED, Alexander B, Kunasek SA. The sensitivity of the oxygen isotopes of ice core sulfate to changing oxidant concentrations since the preindustrial. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.10, 20607-20623 (2010).
  • Thornton JA, Kercher JP, Riedel TP, Wagner NL, Cozic J, Holloway JS, Dubé WP, Wolfe GM, Quinn PK, Middlebrook AM, Alexander B, Brown SS. A large atomic chlorine source inferred from mid-continental reactive nitrogen chemistry. Nature464, doi:10.1038/nature08905 (2010).


  • Williford KH, Foriel J, Ward PD, Steig EJ. Major perturbation in sulfur cycling at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Geology 37: 835-838 (2009).
  • Alexander B, Hastings MG, Allman DJ, Dachs J, Thornton JA, Kunasek SA. Quantifying atmospheric nitrate formation pathways based on a global model of the oxygen isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate. Atmos. Chem. Phys.9: 5043-5056 (2009).
  • Alexander B, Park RJ, Jacob DJ, Gong S. Transition metal catalyzed oxidation of atmospheric sulfur: Global implications for the sulfur budget. J. Geophys. Res.114: D02309 (2009).
  • Garvin J, Buick R, Anbar AD, Arnold GL, Kaufman AJ. Isotopic evidence for an aerobic nitrogen cycle in the Latest Archean. Science323: 1045-1048 (2009).
  • Hastings MG, Jarvis JC, Steig EJ. Anthropogenic impacts on nitrogen isotopes of ice-core nitrate. Science234: 1288 (2009).
  • Huntington KW, Eiler JM, Affek HP, Guo W, Bonifacie M, Yeung LY, Thiagarajan N, Passey B, Tripati A, Daëron M, Came R. Methods and limitations of 'clumped' CO2 isotope (Δ47) analysis by gas-source isotope ratio mass spectrometry. J. Mass. Spectrom.44, 1318-1329. doi: 10.1002/jms.1614. (2009).
  • Steig EJ, Schneider DP, Mann ME, Rutherford SD, Comiso JC, Shindell DT. Warming of the Antarctic ice sheet surface since the 1957 International Geophysical Year. Nature457: 459-462 (2009).


  • Fisher D, Osterberg E, Dyke A, Dahl-Jensen D, Demuth M, Zdanowicz C, Bourgeois J, Koerner RM, Mayewski P, Wake C, Kreutz K, Steig E, Zheng J, Yalcin K, Goto-Azuma K, Luckman B, Rupper S. The Mt. Logan Holocene-late Wisconsinan isotope record: tropical Pacific-Yukon connections. The Holocene 18(5): 667-677 (2008).
  • Jarvis JC, Steig EJ, Hastings MG, Kunasek SA, Influence of local photochemistry on isotopes of nitrate in Greenland snow. Geophysical Research Letters 2008; 35, L21804, doi:10.1029/2008GL035551.
  • Kunasek SA, Alexander B, Steig EJ, Hastings MG, Gleason DJ, Jarvis JC, Measurements and modeling of &Delta 17O of nitrate in snowpits from Summit, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D24302, doi:10.1029/2008JD010103. (2008)
  • Masson-Delmotte V, Hous S, Ekaykin A, Jouzel J, Aristarain A, Bernardo RT, Bromwich D, Cattani O, Delmotte A, Falourd S, Frezzotti M, Galle H, Genoni L, Isaksson E, Landais A, Helsen MM, Hoffmann G, Lopez J, Morgan V, Motoyama H, Noone D, Oerter H, Petit JR, Royer A, Uuemeura R, Schmidt GA, Schlosser E, Simões JC, Steig EJ, Stenni B, Stievenard M, van den Broeke MR, van de Wal RSW, van de Berg WJ, Vimeux F, White JWC. A review of Antarctic surface snow isotopic composition: observations, atmospheric circulation and isotopic modeling. Journal of Climate 21: 3359-3387 (2008).
  • Schneider DP, Noone DC. Spatial covariance of water isotopes in ice cores during 20th Century climate change. Journal of Geophysical Research 2008; 112: D18105, doi:10.1029/2007JD008652.
  • Schneider DP, Steig EJ. Ice cores record significant 1940s Antarctic warmth related to tropical climate variability. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Early Online Edition: August 11th, 2008 (doi:10.1073/pnas.0803627105).
  • Steig EJ. Review: Thin ice: unlocking the secrets of climate in the worlds highest mountains, by Mark Bowen. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 2008; 89(1): 95-97.
  • Steig EJ. Alarming or Alarmist? A review of Mark Lynas's "Six Degrees". Conservation Magazine 2008; January.
  • Steig EJ. Review: Ice mud and blood. Nature Reports Climate Change, doi:10.1038/climate.2008.71; published online 10 July (2008).
  • Steig EJ, Wolfe AP. Sprucing up Greenland. Science 320 (5883): 1595-1596 (2008).


  • Anbar AD, Duan Y, Lyons TW, Arnold GL, Kendall B, Creaser RA, Kaufman AJ, Gordon GW, Scott C, Garvin J, Buick R. A whiff of oxygen before the Great Oxidation Event. Science 2007; 317: 1903-1906.
  • Dibb JE, Albert M, Anastasio C, Atlas E, Beyersdorf AJ, Blake NJ, Blake DR, Bocquet F, Burkhart JF, Chen G, Cohen L, Conway TJ, Courville Z, Frey MM, Friel DK, Galbavy ES, Hall S, Hastings MG, Helmig D, Huey LG, Hutterli MA, Jarvis JC, Lefer BL, Meinardi S, Neff W, Oltmans SJ, Rowland FS, Sjostedt SJ, Steig EJ, Swanson AL, Tanner D. An overview of air-snow exchange at Summit, Greenland: Recent experiments and findings. Atmos.Environ. 2007; 41: 4995-5006.
  • Hagler GSW, Bergin MH, Smith E, Dibb EJ, Anderson C, Steig EJ. Particulate and water-soluble carbon measured in recent snow at Summit, Greenland. Geophysical Research Letters 2007; 34, L16505, doi:10.1029/2007GL030110.
  • Kaufman AJ, Johnston DT, Farquhar J, Masterton AL, Lyons TW, Bates S, Anbar A, Arnold GL, Garvin J, Buick R. Astrobiological insights into global biospheric oxygenation and atmospheric evolution. Science 2007; 317: 1900-1903.
  • Koenig LS, Steig EJ, Winebrenner DP, Shuman CA. A link between microwave extinction length, firn thermal diffusivity and accumulation rate in West Antarctica. J. Geophys. Res. 2007.
  • Steig EJ. Another look at An Inconvenient Truth. Geojournal 2007; 70(1): 5-9.
  • Williford KH, Ward PD, Garrison GH, Buick R. An extended stable organic carbon isotope record across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary in the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada. Palaeo. Palaeo. Palaeo. 2007; 244: 290-296.


  • Fisher DA, Wake C, Kruetz K, Yalcin K, Steig EJ, Mayewski PA, Anderson L, Zheng J, Rupper S, Zdanowicz C, Demuth M, Waszkiewicz M, Dahl-Jensen D, Goto-Azuma K, Bourgeois JB, Koerner RM, Sekerka J, Osterberg E, Abbot MB, Finney BP, Burns SJ. Stable isotope records from Mount Logan and Eclipse Ice Cores and nearby Jellybean Lake; water cycle of the North Pacific over 2000 years and over 5 vertical kilometers; sudden shifts and tropical connections. Geographie Physique et Quaternaire 2006; 58: 337-352.
  • Heald CL, Jacob DJ, Park RJ, Alexander B, Fairlie TD, Chu DA, Yantosca RM. Transpacific transport of Asian anthropogenic aerosols and its impact on surface air quality in the United States. J. Geophys. Res. 2006; 111: D14310.
  • McCabe JR, Savarino J, Alexander B, Gong S, Thiemens MH. Isotopic constraint on non-photochemical sulfate production in the Arctic winter. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2006; 33: L05810.
  • Schneider DP, Steig EJ, van Ommen TD, Dixon DA, Mayewski PA, Jones JM, Bitz CM. Antarctic temperatures over the past two centuries from ice cores. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2006; 33: L16707, doi:10.1029/2006GL02705.
  • Steig EJ. Climate change: the south-north connection. Nature 2006; 444: 152-153.
  • Steig EJ. Climate may not be linked with circulation slowdown. Nature 2006; 439: Correspondence.
  • Steig EJ. Comment on Lake Agassiz Meltwater. EOS, Transactions American Geophysical Union 2006; 87(13): 132.


  • Alexander B, Savarino J, Lee CCW, Park RJ, Jacob DJ, Li Q, Thiemens MH, Yantosca RM. Sulfate formation in sea-salt aerosols: Constraints from oxygen isotopes. J. Geophys. Res. 2005; 110: D1030.
  • Brook E, White JWC, Schilla ASM, Bender ML, Barnett B, Severinghaus JP, Taylor KC, Alley RB, Steig EJ. Timing of millennial-scale climate change at Siple Dome, West Antarctica, during the last glacial period. Quaternary Science Reviews 2005; 24: 1333-1343.
  • Hastings MG, Sigman DM, Steig EJ. Glacial/interglacial changes in NOx inferred from the isotopes of nitrate in the GISP2 ice core. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 2005; GB4024, 10.1029/2005GB002502.
  • Jacobel RW, Welch BC, Steig EJ, Schneider DP. Glaciological and climatic significance of Hercules Dome, Antarctica: an optimal site for deep ice core drilling. J. Geophys. Res. Earth Surface 2005; 110: F01015, doi:10.1029/2004JF000188.
  • Neumann TA, Waddington ED, Steig EJ, Grootes PM. Non-climate influences on stable isotopes at Taylor Mouth, Antarctica. Journal of Glaciology 2005; 51: 248-258.
  • Schneider DP, Steig EJ, van Ommen T. High resolution ice core stable isotopic records from Antarctica: towards interannual climate reconstruction. Annals Glaciol. 2005; 41: 63-70.
  • Steig EJ, Mayewski PA, Dixon DA, Frey MM, Kaspari SD, Schneider DP, Arcone SA, Hamilton GS, Spikes VB, Albert M, Meese D, Gow AJ, Shuman CA, White JWC, Sneed S, Flaherty J, Wumkes M. High-resolution ice cores from US ITASE (West Antarctica); development and validation of chronologies and estimation of precision and accuracy. Annals Glaciol. 2005; 41: 77-84.
  • Waddington ED, Conway H, Steig EJ, Alley RB, Brook EJ, Taylor KC, White JWC. Decoding the dipstick: thickness of Siple Dome, West Antarctica, at the Last Glacial Maximum. Geology 2005; 33: 281-284.
  • Ward PD, Botha J, Buick R, De Kock MO, Erwin DH, Garrison G, Kirschvink J, Smith R. Abrupt and gradual extinction among late Permian land vertebrates in the Karoo Basin, South Africa. Science 2005; 307: 709-714.


  • Alexander B, Savarino J, Kreutz K, Thiemens MH. Impact of preindustrial biomass burning emissions on the oxidation pathways of tropospheric sulfur and nitrogen. J. Geophys. Res. 2004; 109: D08303.
  • Hastings MG, Steig EJ, Sigman DM. Seasonal variations in N and O isotopes of nitrate at Summit, Greenland: Implications for the study of nitrate in snow and ice cores. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 2004; 109: D20306, doi:10.1029/2004JD004991.
  • Kaufman DS, Ager TA, Anderson NJ, Anderson PM, Andrews JT, Bartlein PJ, Brubaker LB, Coats LL, Cwynar LC, Duvall ML, Dyke AS, Edwards ME, Eisner WR, Gajewski K, Geirsdettir A, Hu FS, Jennings AE, Kaplan MR, Kerwin MW, Lozhkin AV, MacDonald GM, Miller GH, Mock CJ, Oswald WW, Otto-Bliesner BL, Porinchu DF, Rohland K, Smol JP, Steig EJ, Wolfe BB. Holocene thermal maximum in the western Arctic (0 to 180? W). Quaternary Science Reviews 2004; 23: 529-560.
  • Mayewski PA, Rohling EE, Stager JC, Karlen W, Maasch KA, Meeker LD, Meyerson EA, Gasse F, van Kreveld S, Holmgren K, Lee-Thorp J, Rosqvist G, Rack F, Staubwasser M, Schneider RR, Steig EJ. Holocene climate variability. Quaternary Research 2004; 62: 243-255.
  • Mayewski PA, Maasch KA, White JWC, Steig EJ, Meyerson E, Goodwin I, Morgan VI, van Ommen T, Curran MAJ, Souney J, Kreutz K. A 700 year record of Southern Hemisphere extratropical climate variability. Annals of Glaciology 2004; 39: 127-132.
  • Monnin E, Steig EJ, Siegenthaler U, Kawamura K, Schwander J, Stauffer B, Morse DL, Stocker TF, Barnola JM, Bellier B, Raynaud D, Fischer H. Evidence for substantial accumulation rate variability in Antarctica during the Holocene through synchronization of CO2 in the Taylor Dome, Dome C and DML ice cores. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 2004; 224, 45-54.
  • Roe GH, Steig EJ. Characterization of millennial-scale climate variability. J. Climate 2004; 17: 1929-1944.
  • Rupper SB, Steig EJ, Roe GH. On the relationship between snow accumulation at Mt. Logan, Yukon, and climate variability in the North Pacific. J. Climate 2004; 17(24): 4724-4739.
  • Schneider DP, Steig EJ, Comiso J. Recent climate variability in Antarctic from satellite-derived temperature data. J. Climate 2004; 7:1569-1583.
  • Shen Y, Buick R. The antiquity of microbial sulfate reduction. Earth Science Reviews 2004; 64: 243-272.
  • Steig EJ. "Antarctic Peninsula Climate Variability: Historical and Paleoenvironmental Perspectives" [book review] Antarctic Science 2004; 16: 359-360.
  • Taylor KC, White JWC, Severinghaus JP, Brook EJ, Mayewski PA, Alley RB, Steig EJ, Spencer MK, Meyerson E, Meese DA, Lamorey GW, Grachev A, Gow AJ, Barnetti BA. Abrupt late glacial climate change in the Pacific sector of Antarctica. Quaternary Science Reviews 2004; 23: 7-15.
  • Ward PD, Garrison GH, Haggart JW, Kring DA, Beattie MJ. Isotopic evidence bearing on Late Triassic extinction events, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, and implications for the duration and cause of the Triassic / Jurassic mass extinction. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 2004; 224:589-600.
  • Winebrenner DP, Steig EJ, Schneider DP. Relationship between surface air temperatures and microwave brightness temperatures in Antarctica. Annals of Glaciology 2004; 39: 346-350.


  • Alexander B, Farquhar J, Kaufman AJ, Savarino J, Delmas RJ, Thiemens MH. East Antarctic ice core sulfur isotope measurements over a complete glacial-interglacial cycle. J. Geophys. Res. 2003; 108(D24): 4786.
  • Brocks JJ, Buick R, Logan GA, Summons RE. Composition and syngeneity of molecular fossils from the 2.78 to 2.45 billion-year-old Mount Bruce Supergroup, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 2003; 67: 4289-4319.
  • Brocks JJ, Buick R, Summons RE, Logan GA. A reconstruction of Archean biological diversity based on molecular fossils from the 2.78 to 2.45 billion year old Mount Bruce Supergroup, Hamersley Basin, Western Australia. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 2003; 67: 4321-4335.